NeverNeverLand: Cross-Cultural Consumer behaviour

NeverNeverLand: Cross-Cultural Consumer behaviour

Nightmare on French St: A Parisian man walks into Disneyland Anaheim and asks for wine with his lunch…. “Pas de vin?!?!?!?!” (No wine?!?!) the man exclaims, “PAS DE VIN?!?!?!?!!?” “NON, NON, NON!” (NO, NO, NO!).


Not a scenario I would want to be close to, however a very real situation, Disney’s Magical Kingdom theme parks in California, Hong Kong and Tokyo do not sell alcohol to attendees unless being cordially invited to the Club 33 by a member of Disneyland (Niles, 2012). There’s a city missing you say? Paris! Yes that’s right, Disneyland Paris holds the seemingly exclusive citizens who are eating drinking and being merry all day long at the Disney’s adventure park.


What……why can Paris get boozy?


The opening of Disneyland Paris is notably one of failure, where the economic losses were of the hundred millions on the first few years of the parks existence (Bondebjerg & Golding, 2004). The faux pas was inevitably due because of the misunderstanding of cultural differences examined furthermore in Hofstede’s five dimensions of national culture (Boga & Efeoğlu, 2016).


To understand hofstedes dimensions… watch this short explanation


Hofstede proposes variance within USA and France, for example, power distance in France, is scaled high, to suggest that there is a very strict hierarchial system and centralised power, whereas the US is low with a strong sense of equal rights for all (ITIM International, 2016). Taking us back to the alcoholism of the French Disneyland, hofstedes theorem (ITIM International, 2016) considers the inequality between adults and children, in which they are raised to be dependant from their parents, thus adult wanderers of the adventure land may want the power to be able to enjoy a glass of wine, or two, and let their kids do as they please


USA as masculine, competitive, successful and achievement goal-oriented, compared with France being a feminine culture, there is an indication that the quality of life within the nation is of high-importance (ITIM International, 2016). Here presents the ignorance of the obvious American brand where there was no consideration of French food culture (a distinctive factor). Disney emulated the US way of life onto the European version of the brand, where the disregarded food aspect of Disneyland Paris is highlighted (Adekola & Sergi, 2007) as the Parisian adventure park initially did not serve breakfast! But, like, breakfast is a French tradition…..


If Paris failed what about the rest of them?


Fortunately, Hong Kong and Tokyo Disneyland’s have had a fairly good run throughout their lifetime, some of the distinct factors seen in Tokyo Disneyland emanate the similarities and differences efficiently in their company strategies. Being that Japans power distance indicates the national ability to be placed in any social setting and act accordingly(ITIM International, 2016), Toyko Disneyland, created a hybrid of the two cultures in a manner that maintained their boundaries by substituting intense service rules for institutional rules and community structure (Karadjova-Stoeva & Mujtaba, 2009).

So to make like the french and say oui oui to a glass of red and a main meal at Disney parade o’clock, you won’t be hitting the Californian adventure parks anytime soon.



Reference List:


Adekola, A. & Sergi, B.S., 2007, Global business management: A cross-cultural perspective, Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.



Boga, S. & Efeoğlu, I.E., 2016, A Case Study on Cross-Cultural Differences: A Failure Story, International Business: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools and Applications, Information Resources Management Association, USA, p. 1108.



Bondebjerg, I. & Golding, P., 2004, European culture and the media, Intellect Books, 1.



De Mooij, M. & Hofstede, G., 2011, Cross-cultural consumer behavior: A review of research findings, Journal of International Consumer Marketing, 23(3-4), pp.181-192.



ITIM International, 2016, The Hofstede Centre: Strategy, Culture, Change, Hofstede Centre, May 10 2016, < >.



Karadjova-Stoev, G. & Mujtaba, B.G., 2009, Strategic human resource management and global expansion lessons from the Euro Disney challenges in France, International Business & Economics Research Journal (IBER), 8(1).



Niles, R., 2012, Disney to add booze at the Magic Kingdom*(update with vote of the week), Theme Park Insider, May 10 2016, < >.





I Screen, You Screen, We all Screen for Screen Culture

I Screen, You Screen, We all Screen for Screen Culture

Scan, swipe, beep, boop…. Gone are the days of fumbling through your wallet for that pesky buy five get the sixth one free coffee card. Say hello to the days where buying groceries can be done at a smartphones ability to paypass.

The evidence of screen culture today includes the digital arena, where small lit up screens are preferred in many aspects of our society (Trendwatching, 2012). Mcarthy suggests that the physical retail store is perhaps a microcosm of capitalist actions (Mcarthy, 2001, p. 164), whereas the emerging popularity of screens broadens scope and brings in the best of both worlds (Shop2Mobi, 2012), where consumers can use their smartphones to search, compare, purchase, evaluate and consider, all at a flick of the wrist


Shiffman et al suggest that culture is “natural and automatic” (p.393), where a feature of the culture within society has to do with satisfying specific needs (Shiffman, 2014). In the case of screen culture, there are increasing evolutions within business to push consumers and other businesses to conform to this cultural norm. The known and loved coffee cards, used by many and lost by most, examples the specific standard which no longer satisfies the screen culture world. Alas, Rewardle came in to take its thunder, by migrating into a mobile app.

Consumers can gain purchase power within Rewardle, by tracking there points, scoring bonus deals, and having the utmost convenience. The interface to everything and anything that lies beyond the screen (Trendwatching, 2012), not only stops at the consumer, but for the retailer in question, they can gain valuable insight and strong customer engagement to bring forward their marketing efforts.

Can it go beyond coffee shops?

Certainly! Shiffman et al considers that culture is learned as we begin to acquire beliefs and values from our satisfied needs. A way to understand this is to think of how children learn by playing with toys, given that in a modern world iPad’s are increasingly becoming childhood memories, we can apply the learning theory to the reading culture vs the Screen culture and how this trend has become an apparent norm within society.

As noted above individual needs will become satisfied by screen culture and as technology continues to advance, so too does our learning. Another example is the NFC (near field communication) technology in smartphones that enables payment terminals to communicate with each other for the good of our size-decreasing wallets (Kessler, 2010).


Individuals are yielding to their old standards of needs; from using credit cards and coffee cards, and replacing them with the involvement of screens due to our increased learnings and efficiency (Komando, 2011).





Reference List:


Kessler, S., 2010, Why your smartphone will replace your wallet, Mashable Australia, Dec 16,, May 15 2016, <>



Komando, K., 2011, Your Phone will replace your wallet, YouTube Video, Jan 11, The Kim Komando Show, viewed May 15 2016, <>


McCarthy A., 2001, Ambient television: Visual culture and public space. Duke University Press, 164-165.


Schiffman, L., O’Cass, A., Paladino A., and Carlson, J., 2014, Consumer Behaviour, Pearson Australia, 396-397.


Shop2Mobi, 2012, Mobile Smartphone QR Code Shopping, Nov 5,, viewed May 8 2016, <;



Startup Daily, 2013, Startup rewardle says goodbye to fat wallets and loyalty cards!, Startup Daily, May 15 2016, < >


Trend Watching, 2012, (R)etail (R)evolution: Etail is retail is etail’, May 2012 Trend Briefing,, <>





Do Not Underestimate Me: CB and Packaging

In summary of this YouTube clip, effective packaging may help stimulate sales and reduce costs within a company’s marketing plan (Stewart. 1995). With evidence showing that most shopping decisions are made at the point of purchase, packaging stimuli is an essential factor of persuading consumer purchase decisions (Liao et al. 2010).

Take a guess at what brand this is…

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If you guessed Nutella…..



Nutino be like LOL, what’s Nutella?

Here the blurry line exists within the explosion of choice amongst product category, because of certain consumer learning theories. Basically the Russian physiologist, Pavlov (1927), found that learning depends not only on repetition, but also on the ability for individuals to generalize. This Nutella V Nutino scenario arises because the Nutella packaging contains underlying conditioned stimulus for positive attributes like childhood and sweetness (Anrep et al. 2003). Here, Nutino has utilised these aspects by provoking consumer response in similar packaging in hope to promote their similarities to Nutella.

Don’t fret, stimulus generalization is not only for pure evil.

Brand’s use similar or the same packaging design for all or most of its products in product line, form and category extensions (Shiffman. 2014) to upkeep positioning to all of its products.

Screen Shot 2016-05-10 at 7.57.02 AMFor example, Garnier emits their packaging into all brand categories in hope to keep brand loyalty amongst its consumers.



Contrastingly, stimulus discrimination occurs when a brand completely differentiates themselves amongst competing brands within packaging. This approach underlines the positioning strategy, aiming to establish unique qualities and create interest for prospective buyers (Shiffman. 2014).

Wang et al (2012) examines the sales opportunity that occurs when effective packaging engages consumer attention. But what a marketer may wonder, is, in which scenario does discrimination or generalization produce this opportunity?

Ted Pappas (Hemdom. 2012) whiskey packaging demonstrates an example where generalization wasn’t working. Initially a good response to the design, but when sales were low there was the underlying factor that the plain and clean label would “just sink into the dark wall of whiskey” (Hemdom. 2012, p.30).

Where are they now?

Screen Shot 2016-05-09 at 9.10.30 AM

Pappas invested in new packaging with something BIGGER and BETTER.

The salient word BIG, may illustrate the positive motivation of ‘bigger is better’, thus, the distinguishing factor can be proposed, that Ted Pappa’s whiskey, is the biggest and the best out there of whiskey brands. Pappas is said (Hemdom. 2012, p.30) to have an incline of 67% from the previous year for product sales.

So, whether its stimulus generalization or discrimination, there must be evidential research taken to decide which packaging decision YOU must make.




Reference List:

Hemdom, LK., 2012, Packaging stimulus, Entrepreneur, 40(11) pp. 28-30, Business Source Complete.

Liao, L., Lockshin, L., Kennedy, R. and Corsi, A., 2010. The Impact of Emotion on Effective Packaging for Consumer Goods (Doctoral dissertation, University of Canterbury).

Pavlov, I.P. and Anrep, G.V. 1927. Conditioned reflexes. An Investigation of the physiological activity of the cerebral cortex. Pg. 185.

Pavlov, I.P., 2003. Conditioned reflexes. Courier Corporation.

Schiffman, L, O’Cass, A, Paladino, A and Carlson, J., 2014, Consumer Behaviour, Pearson Australia

Stewart, B., 1995. Packaging as an effective marketing tool. CRC Press.

Wang, R.W., Chou, M.C. and Lan, P.W., 2010. Research into the Elements of Design Differentiation in the Findability of Beverage Packaging. International Journal of Interdisciplinary Social Sciences, 5(2).

The Consumer Behaviour You CAN Put Your $’s Into

Choosing a bank = long nights researching things we know little about (interest rates shminterest rates)

An absolute headache if you ask me
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Couldn’t it all be so simple?


As discussed in the lecture, what is Consumer Behaviour? It is the “behaviour that consumers display in searching for, purchasing, using, evaluating and disposing of the products and services that they expect will satisfy a need.”


So my number one consumer behaviour experience? Commbank!

Commbank has created such an empire of friendly faces and comforting facts that makes any prospective money saver hit the ground running to a CBA bank account.


All this being said, basically, CBA has locked me in with dollarmites, starting from a youngen, imprinting their work into my fresh mind. Fast forward a few years, to a poor, poor, university student. CBA O-week stall – they have their ‘brand ambassadors’ there who create moments of truth with wide-eyed first years, promoting $0 fees, free stuff and a bank you can love and trust. How can you even dare look at another.


I may be a biased Commbank customer, however, the small experiences that they make with each consumer is a great marketing ploy, to then lock them in with a convenient smartphone app (cardless cash!!!) and fully revamped branches with a smiling concierge and an overall pleasing environment.


In relation to CB, I believe CBA has done there homework in the ways people search for a product, making it fun, fabulous and easy to choose the bank you want to be in.


I truely think, Commbank Can…

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